This is one of three temples to Fortuna on the Quirinal, just inside the Porta Collina, which gave their name to the district. The principal one of these three seems to have been that of the Praenestine goddess who was known officially at Rome as Fortuna Publica Populi Romani Quiritium Primigenia.

This temple was vowed in 204 B.C.E. by consul P. Sempronius Sophus at the beginning of the battle with Hannibal at Croton (Liv. xxix.36.8), and dedicated on 25 May 194 B.C.E. by Q. Marcius Ralla (Liv. xxxiv.53). It is probably this temple in which prodigies were observed in 169 B.C.E.:

"Two temple custodians in the City of Rome announced portents; one stated that a crested snake had been seen by several persons in the Temple of Fortune; the other declared that two distinct portents had appeared in the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia on the Quirinal, a palm tree sprang up in the temple precinct and a rain of blood had fallen in the daytime."

"... alter in aede Primigeniae Fortunae, quae in Colle est, duo diuersa prodigia, palmam in area enatam et sanguine interdiu pluuisse." (Liv. XLIII.13).